ECC in NAND flash memory

ECC in NAND flash memory The modern flash devices have a very common problem of data integrity caused by low quality of NAND chips. This problem is well known as “Bit errors”. When bit errors appear on the area where file is stored, it gets corrupted and unreadable. It’s very noticeable on multimedia files. There…


XOR (Scrambler) key extraction

XOR (Scrambler) key extraction Author: Chris Sampson, TRC Data Recovery Using Visual Nand Reconstructor, we are able to identify and extract new or unidentified Xor scrambler patterns in a (normally) relatively straight forward way. We do this using a little knowledge of the flash memory chip architecture which we then combine with the bitmap viewer…


Logical image reconstruction

Logical image reconstruction When physical image of chip extracted to file it’s stored in “Physical image” element. In this case pendrive had one NAND chip that consisted of one crystal. At beginning of analysis it’s necessary to describe structure of NAND physical image. It helps to visualize patterns and determine parameters such as Block size,…